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    Rothila ~ a west african marketplace, or store

BLACK SEMINOLES "Though referred to by some white observers as slaves to the Indians, General Edmund P. Gaines described them more accurately as "vassals and allies". They lived in separate villages; had their own fields, flocks, and herds; habitually carried arms; went into battle under their own captains; and, except for an annual tribute in corn to the chiefs who were their protectors, were as free as the Indians themselves. In fact, their knowledge of the English language and of the white mans ways and their superior industry and prosperity gave them such influence that some observers styled them the real rulers of the Seminole nation. They took a leading part in the resistance to the annexation of Florida and the Seminole removal but were finally transported, along with Indians, to the Indian Territory, where they were exposed to the danger of kidnapping by whites and Creeks." Kenneth W. Porter, "The Seminole Negro-Indian Scouts, 1870-1881," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. LV, No. 3, January, 1952, p. 359. SWACK  ^  NEW! Historical Notes Past

Watch MUSKOGA The Trailer ~~ also ~~ Mascogo Doc Promo First Rough Cut

(click on photos)    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^     (click on photos)

~Some History & Lore~

Some Notes on Pre-Colonial West Africa

Ancient African Voyages to the "lands of the setting sun"

Evolution: Black Seminole Indians
Istoko - A Seminole Folktale

In Indian Territory
Black Seminole Indians - the Freedmen

Into Coahuila, Mexico New names, new families, new culture, new life.

Texas - Back In The U.S.A.
Same ol' story, same ol' lies

Muspa Underground Railroad to Mexico

~Visit ~


~ Bill of Fare ~

Doug Sivad
author, actor, lecturer,
producer, director

Muskoga Seminole Indians of Mexico & Texas--A Lecture

w h o I a m . . . | . . . m o r e


Muskoga Black Seminole
Indians of Mexico and Texas

The Black Seminole Indians of Mexico & the Mascogo
Plus BONUS History
Muskogee Indian Underground Railroad to Mexico

Black Seminole
Indians of Texas

A Bibliography
Black Seminole Indians
Mexico & Texas

Gone To Croatan
Origins of American Dropout Cultures

Ron Sakolsky & James Kroenlin


Black Indian Forum


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