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Who and What Is A Seminole ~~
         1st - Cimarone; African Merchant Seafarers (began in ancient history)
Labeled so by Spanish colonizers. The term meant "wild", like stray cattle, with no ethnicity implied by the description. They resided among the many American Native nations (Calusa; Tekesta, et al) who were living in Florida when they arrived as merchants;
       2nd - Istalusti; Estalusti (1699) Enslaved Black bonds persons who absconded by the hundreds from Virginia and Carolina to Florida, the first arrivals noted by the Spanish, in 1699; a Creek Muskogee term;
3rd - Yamassee (1715) A Black Indian nation, ran to Florida beginning after the Yamassee War of 1715 until 1750;
        4th - Black & Red Okonee Lower Creek (1750) to Florida after General Oglethorpe established the colony of Savannah in 1733; tribe split over Black American Natives in the nation. These Indians of Georgia had no "R" in their language; Cimarone became "Cimalone" after 1750, then later "Seminole." Later Arrivals: Upper Creek Muspa; "Red Sticks" after Creek Wars 1812-1814 Mikasuki (early 1800's) to Florida from Alabama/Georgia border area; Other Muspa (Muskogee) Chata, Alibamu, and non-Muspa Tsalagi (Cherokee), et al. Excerpt from Muskoga Black Seminole Indians Mexico & Texas by Doug Sivad
  SWACK  ^   Historical Notes Past

Watch MUSKOGA The Trailer ~~ also ~~ Mascogo Doc Promo First Rough Cut

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~Some History & Lore~

Some Notes on Pre-Colonial West Africa

Ancient African Voyages to the "lands of the setting sun"

Evolution: Black Seminole Indians
Istoko - A Seminole Folktale

In Indian Territory
Black Seminole Indians - the Freedmen

Into Coahuila, Mexico New names, new families, new culture, new life.

Texas - Back In The U.S.A.
Same ol' story, same ol' lies

Muspa Underground Railroad to Mexico

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Doug Sivad
author, actor, lecturer,
producer, director

Muskoga Seminole Indians of Mexico & Texas--A Lecture

w h o I a m . . . | . . . m o r e


Muskoga Black Seminole
Indians of Mexico and Texas

The Black Seminole Indians of Mexico & the Mascogo
Plus BONUS History
Muskogee Indian Underground Railroad to Mexico

Black Seminole
Indians of Texas

A Bibliography
Black Seminole Indians
Mexico & Texas

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Gone To Croatan
Origins of American Dropout Cultures

Ron Sakolsky & James Kroenlin


Black Indian Forum


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