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Who and What Is A Seminole ~~


  1. Cimarone; African Merchant Seafarers (began in ancient history) – Labeled so by Spanish colonizers. The term meant “wild”, like stray cattle, with no ethnicity implied by the description. They resided among the many American Native nations (Calusa; Tekesta, et al) who were living in Florida when they arrived as merchants;
  2. Istalusti; Estalusti (1699) – Enslaved Black bonds persons who absconded by the hundreds from Virginia and Carolina to Florida, the first arrivals noted by the Spanish, in 1699; a Creek Muskogee term;
  3. Yamassee (1715) – A Black Indian nation, ran to Florida beginning after the Yamassee War of 1715 until 1750;
  4. Black & Red Okonee Lower Creek (1750) – to Florida after General Oglethorpe established the colony of Savannah in 1733; tribe split over Black American Natives in the nation. These Indians of Georgia had no “R” in their language; Cimarone became “Cimalone” after 1750, then later “Seminole.” Later Arrivals: Upper Creek Muspa; “Red Sticks” after Creek Wars 1812-1814 Mikasuki (early 1800’s) to Florida from Alabama/Georgia border area; Other Muspa (Muskogee) Chata, Alibamu, and non-Muspa Tsalagi (Cherokee), et al. Excerpt from Muskoga Black Seminole Indians Mexico & Texas by Doug Sivad
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